Ground water is water below the land surface that fills the spaces between grains of sediment and rocks, or fills cracks and fractures in the rock. Saturated zones in sediment such as sand and gravel, and in fractured rock formations, that receive, store and transmit water to wells and springs are aquifers.
Some ground water occurs at the surface as springs, but in most cases, a water well is needed to reach the aquifer where ground water is found. Wells are made by drilling into the rock layers using drilling machines (rigs) to access water deep beneath the surface. In most cases electric pumps are used to raise the water to the surface.
The creation of a water well consists of several elements. After selecting the site to drill the well, the process includes drilling, development, testing and equipment installation.